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Permission overview

A new User does not have permissions for any part of the system, unless they are explicitly given access. To get access they need to inherit Roles, typically assigned to the User Group they belong to.

Each Role can contain one or more Policies. A Policy is a rule that gives access to a single function in a module. For example, a section/assign Policy allows the User to assign content to Sections.

When you add a Policy to a Role, you can also restrict it using one or more Limitations. A Policy with a Limitation will only apply when the condition in the Limitation is fulfilled. For example, a content/publish Policy with a ContentType Limitation on the "Blog Post" Content Type will allow the User to publish only Blog Posts, and not other Content.

A Limitation, like a Policy, specifies what a User can do, not what they can't do. A Section Limitation, for example, gives the User access to the selected Section, not prohibits it.

See Available Limitations for further information and Permission use cases for example permission setups.

Combining Policies

Policies on one Role are connected with the and relation, not or, so when Policy has more than one Limitation, all of them have to apply.

If you want to combine more than one Limitation with the or relation, not and, you can split your Policy in two, each with one of these Limitations.

Assigning Roles to Users

Every User or User Group can have many roles. A User can also belong to many groups, for example, Administrators, Editors, Subscribers.

It is best practice to avoid assigning Roles to users directly. Instead, try to organize your content so that it can be covered with general roles assigned to User Groups.

Using Groups is easier to manage and more secure. It also improves system performance. The more Role assignments and complex Policies you add for a given User, the more complex the search/load queries will be, because they always take permissions into account.

Available Policies

Module Function Effect
all modules all functions grant all available permissions
content read view the content both in front and back end
  diff unused
  view_embed view content embedded in another Content item (even when the User is not allowed to view it as an individual Content item)
  create create new content. Note: even without this Policy the User is able to enter edit mode, but cannot finalize work with the Content item.
  edit edit existing content
  publish publish content. Without this Policy, the User can only save drafts or send them for review (in eZ Enterprise)
  manage_locations remove Locations and send content to Trash
  hide hide and reveal content Locations
  reverserelatedlist see all content that a Content item relates to (even when the User is not allowed to view it as an individual Content items)
  translate unused
  remove remove Locations and send content to Trash
  versionread view content after publishing, and to preview any content in the Page mode
  versionremove remove archived content versions
  translations manage the language list in Admin
  urltranslator manage URL aliases of a Content item
  pendinglist unused
  restore restore content from Trash
  cleantrash empty the trash (even when the User does not have access to individual Content items)
Content Type update modify existing Content Types. Also required to create new Content Types
  create create new Content Types. Also required to edit exiting Content Types
  delete delete Content Types
state assign assign Object States to Content items
  administrate view, add and edit Object States
role assign assign roles to Users and User Groups
  update modify existing Roles
  create create new Roles
  delete delete Roles
  read view the Roles list in Admin. Required for all other role-related Policies
section assign assign Sections to content
  edit edit existing Sections and create new ones
  view view the Sections list in Admin. Required for all other section-related Policies
setup administrate access Admin
  install unused
  setup unused
  system_info view the System information tab in Admin
user login log in to the application
  password unused
  preferences access and set user preferences
  register register using the /register route
  selfedit unused
  activation unused
workflow change_stage change stage in the specified workflow

Permissions for custom controllers

You can control access to a custom controller by implementing the performAccessCheck() method.

In the following example the user does not have access to the controller unless they have the section/view Policy:

use eZ\Publish\Core\MVC\Symfony\Security\Authorization\Attribute;

public function performAccessCheck(): void
    $this->denyAccessUnlessGranted(new Attribute('section', 'view'));

Attribute accepts three arguments:

  • module is the Policy module (e.g. content)
  • function is the function inside the module (e.g. read)
  • limitations are optional limitations to check against. Here you can provide two keys:
    • valueObject is the object you want to check for, for example ContentInfo.
    • targets are a table of value objects that are the target of the operation. For example, to check if Content can be assigned to a Section, provide the Section as targets. targets accept Location, Object State and Section objects.

Checking user access

To check if a user has access to an operation, use the isGranted() method. For example, to check if Content can be assigned to a section:

$hasAccess = $this->isGranted(
    new Attribute( 'section', 'assign', [ 'valueObject' => $contentInfo, 'targets' => [$section] ] )

You can also use the permission resolver (eZ\Publish\API\Repository\PermissionResolver). The canUser() method checks if the user can perform a given action with the selected object.

For example: canUser('content', 'edit', $content, [$location] ); checks the content/edit permission for the provided Content item at the provided Location.

Blocking access to controller action

To block access to a specific action of the controller, add the following to the action's definition:

$this->denyAccessUnlessGranted(new Attribute('state', 'administrate'));